32 » Other Operating Expenses

Expenses are presented by function according to the ‘cost of sales method’ in the income statement with the exception of impairment losses (net) on accounts receivable and contract assets which are disclosed in a separate line item as required by IFRS 9 ‘Financial Instruments’.

Other operating expenses presented by functions include marketing and point-of-sale expenses, distribution and selling expenses, general and administration expenses as well as sundry expenses less any income from government grants, if applicable.

Marketing and point-of-sale expenses consist of promotion and communication spending such as promotion contracts, advertising, events and other communication activities. However, they do not include marketing overhead expenses, which are presented in distribution and selling expenses.

The distribution and selling expenses consist of sales force and sales administration costs, direct and indirect supply chain costs, marketing overhead expenses, as well as expenses for research and development, which amounted to € 152 million in 2019 (2018: € 153 million).

General and administration expenses include the functions IT, Finance, Legal, Human Resources, Facilities & Services as well as General Management.

Sundry expenses consist mainly of costs for one-time effects as well as losses from disposal of fixed assets.

Income from government grants is reported as a deduction from the related expenses and amounted to € 34 million in 2019 (2018: €27 million).

Further information on expenses by nature is provided in these Notes. See note 33